Train system and development history

The first person to succeed in building a passenger train is George Stephenson, a miner in England.  When before working in the mine, Step...

The first person to succeed in building a passenger train is George Stephenson, a miner in England. 
When before working in the mine, Stephenson was familiar with James Watt's steam machines, and following Murdock's and Trevithick's ideas, Stephenson built a train that pulled 90 tons on a 85-mile track. Stephenson built the second car and the third, 4 and a half pounds, had a 1.42 meter diameter wheel. The third one is called Rocket and was launched in 1830, starting the fire industry. During the initial attempts, the Rocket carried 36 passengers and ran at a speed of 30 miles an hour.

The first railroad track was also built by George Stephenson, 32 kilometers (20 miles) long, starting to connect the towns of Stockton and Darlington in 1825 and on this route, steam trains followed one. regular schedule. A second train route was established by Stephenson in 1830, 48 kilometers (32 miles) long, connecting Liverpool city to Manchester city with steam trains carrying passengers on a regular basis. Stephenson also suggested that all of the nation's railways should follow the same standard and this size was 4 feet 8.5 inches (1.44 meters) equivalent to the length of the horse carriage. Later European and American countries used this standard.

Thanks to the ideology of British inventors, and also thanks to the builders in the UK, the United States is the country that has made the train industry a fruitful. Colonel John Stevens obtained the privilege in New Jersey to exploit the railway. In 1825, Stevens built a train and gave the train a small run at Hoboken, New Jersey. Stevens devised the principle of using the gear of the train's head to fit into the tooth lines between the train tracks. Two years later, Pennsylvania's Delaware and Hudson Canal decided to set up a railroad and the company imported two vessels built by Stephenson. One of the two trains is called Stourbridge Lion, which is the first commercially used train in the United States.

In 1831, the head of the ship John Bull was brought into the United States to run the railroad Camden and Amboy, and the importation of the British ships was terminated because the vehicle was too heavy for thin railway tracks. fragile of the United States. So many types of new trains are built in place to be more suitable. From 1830, Peter Cooper built the Tom Thumb train for the Baltimore - Ohio railroad and West Point foundry to produce the Best Friend car for use in 1831 in South Carolina, on the route between Charleston. and Hamburg.

When the soup pot is placed vertically, it is modified into horizontal. Mohawk and Hudson's historic railway vehicle De Witt Clinton, built by West Point foundry, has a horizontal soup-de-pot. In August 1831, the above-mentioned train head pulled a 17-inch long-distance unmanned train from Albany to Schenectady for 1 hour and 45 minutes and achieved a maximum speed of 30 miles an hour. When I returned to the train, it was running for about an hour. The De Witt Clinton train was used for 14 years before giving way to more advanced ships.

Thanks to its heavy carrying capacity, trains are popularized and used by many people. The United States is a rich country in terms of raw materials, so it is a very suitable place for pioneers in the fire industry. Thanks to the train, people were able to transport many materials out of the mining areas to the factories. So Americans put millions of dollars into setting up this transportation industry. The development of trains in the mid-19th century was a milestone marking the progress of a new industry. The American inventors favored machines, adding European train models to many significant reforms. In just a few decades, the railroad track ran along the wilderness of the Mississippi River Valley, through fields to the Rockies and to the Pacific coast.

In order to be able to supply the full range of vessels according to the demand, special steel foundries were born. In the early days, Mathew Baldwin's workshop played an important role. Baldwin was formerly a jeweler but quit the job and turned to a new career. Baldwin began to build a train head called Old Ironsides in 1832 in the style of a John Bull. This is a train with 8 tons, can pull 80 tons of goods. Because roads in the United States are often steeper and sharper corners in the UK, manufacturers have to think so that the ship's head has enough power, and is easy to drive in curves. This latter property was reformed by Jervis engineer of Mohawk and Hudson. Jervis also increased the number of wheels of the train from 4 to 8 wheels.

At Rogers Locomotive factory in Paterson, New Jersey, the ships are built with cylinders located outside the ship frame. The train head built for New York railroads, New Haven and Harford has become a model for half a century for other US ships. The head of this train has 8 wheels, 11 cylinders 45 cm long. Because the capacity of the train is increasing, one has to think about how to make the wheel do not slip when the train is running. This slip could be avoided if the power was poured into the steering wheel, so the train tugs pulled up the number of steering wheels. Later, people were searching for methods to increase the power of the train but still use the same amount of coal, for example, the giant Virginian, with a length of 32.6 meters and 450 tons, was enough to pull 17,000. ton.

Passenger trains.
By 1850, most railroads were built in the states east of the Mississippi River. There are railroad networks that radiate from big cities like Boston, New York and Philadelphia, connecting cities in the midwest and southeast. In Lake Erie, the train company opened the route connecting Piermont to Dunkirk in 1851 and in the 1880s, trains ran on roads connecting Chicago to the Mississippi River Valley. In 1857, both the cities of Chicago and Saint Louis were transportation centers.

In 1850 the US House of Representatives began using federal lands for railway construction companies because the House said that these roads would attract settlers to reside in the Midwestern lands and The South has not yet been developed. Thanks to this land assistance, a train route connects the city of Chicago with the city of Mobile, near the Gulf of Mexico in the state of Alabama. In the 1860s, trains continued to develop and played an important role in the South North American Civil War (1861/65) by moving soldiers and supplies to the front.

In the early 1860s, the US government decided to develop a system of railroads across the territory. The proposed railway runs along the 42nd parallel, from Omaha, Nebraska, to Sacramento, California. Meanwhile, the railroad from Chicago will be built to connect to the city of Omaha. In 1862, the US Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act, which gave the responsibility to build two companies: Central Pacific Railroad Company set rail from Sacramento city to the east. , while Union Pacific Company started from Omaha city to the west. The US government provided these companies with wide ranges of land and lent millions of dollars.

The railroad from Sacramento began in 1863 and this work was difficult to cross the Rockies and Sierra Nevada. In order to have enough railroad workers, Central Pacific Company hired thousands of Chinese immigrants while thousands of other immigrants from Europe worked for Union Pacific Company. On May 10, 1869, these two east and west railroads were joined together in the city of Promontory in the state of Utah and as such, the United States was the first country to have a transcontinental railway connecting the two. east and west coasts. By the end of the 19th century, the United States had five transcontinental train routes, while the Canadian Pacific Railway (the Canadian Pacific Railway), now CP Railway Company (CP Rail), also completed the service. Transcontinental railroads in 1885 and auxiliary routes with major cities like Montreal, Quebec and Vancouver. The railroad has opened new areas of settlement and trade.

Technically, after solving the power of the locomotive, new inventors think of ways to make traveling by train become safe and fully equipped. In order for the train to avoid accidents, technicians have to find a winning thing. In 1869, George Westinghouse in Schenectady, New York, obtained a patent for a win and thanks to this type of win, the ships could stop faster than using hand wins and reduced traffic accidents go. The safety of the train also depends on the beacon and the understanding of the location of the different trains. First, manual beacons are used but then accidents continue to happen, making people think of using automatic beacons. Automatic lights found in England in 1858, then used all over the world.

In 1873, the American amateur inventor named Eli Janney obtained an invention of an automatic car coupler. Then in 1893, the US Congress passed the Railroad Safety Appliance Act, which required all ships to have a brake and automatic assembly.

Pullman train cars

The farther the fire industry is, the more cargo and passengers it can carry. The inventors therefore had to think about improving passenger wagons. At the beginning of the passenger car without a roof, the riders were exposed to the sun and wind, suffering from the dust and black smoke of the train. In order to avoid these inconveniences, confined cars have been built, but improvements are added until the air conditioner is installed, reading lights and adjustable seats.

Because trains run all day and night, passengers need rest. In 1836, the Cumberland Valley train company built wagons with beds, but at that time, these special cars were just cars that were usually held in two to put in soft beds. When using these cars, passengers do not have a change of clothes and sanitation is also an obstacle. Later, bed cushions are provided but passengers must make their own beds. It was in this condition that George Pullman appeared.

After much thinking about the passenger car, Pullman made a bedside carriage in its own right in 1858. Pullman repaired two old wagons, set up bedrooms and washrooms, painted inside with color. light red, covered with felt fabrics, lighted oil lamp wagons and added fireplaces. Swinging upper berth and convertible chairs are the major contributions of Pullman.

To make the sleeper more luxurious, it is necessary to have wagons more spacious than regular wagons, which is an obstacle for the railway companies. Even so, Pullman still has a sleeping train called the Pioneer, worth $ 20,000. This is a great sum of money put into a single wagon. The Prescription Pioneer was used to transport President Lincoln from Chicago to Springfield. In 1867, George Pullman organized a bedside railroad company called The Pullman Palace Car Company.

Pullman continues to paint and build sleeper cars, using 6-wheeled cars with 4-wheelers and fixing them inside by adding woven carpets, painted ceilings, soles and adding all furniture Dependency of a luxury hotel. In 1867, George Pullman had 47 sleeping cars and was very busy so it was impossible to make other cars. In a few years, some sleeper cars were exported to England and made this car popular in the UK. By 1875, there were 700 Pullman wagons running on many railroads. Today the Pullman noun means the train facilities.

In 1917, when the United States participated in the First World War, in December of that year, the US government controlled the entire railroad system running in the United States and returned the system only to companies. private in March 1920.

For a century, steam was used for rail vehicles. Technical advances have helped to increase the strength and velocity of steam train trains. By the end of the 19th century, many ships had reached a maximum speed of 50 miles per hour or 80 kilometers per hour. The engineers then tried to apply the power line to the train train, and in 1895, the Ohio-Ohio railroad company tested an electric train that ran on 3.5 miles or 5.6 kilometers in the lower tunnel Baltimore city. Gradually, electricity replaced steam and was applied to many countries' fire systems. The use of electricity causes trains to remove smoke and noise, which are inconvenient for densely populated areas. Electricity also provides much needed power when trains have to climb high slopes, giving them a big acceleration.

For fire systems that use electricity, the main thing is to have a continuous power source. In the suburbs, electricity is supplied by a third rail. On long distances, two-way electric current is transferred through high strands. One of the 440 meters of new railroad electricity construction works, carried out in 1915 from the Rockies mountains through Chicago, Milwakee and Saint Paul. A few years later, 42 great ships were used on these roads, each of which weighed 284 tons and was transported by 8 powerful engines of 420 horsepower, making the total number of engines up to 3,440 horsepower. At the same time with the improvements in railway locomotives and railroads, they were replaced by steel rails and the new material was more than 20 times stronger while wooden wagons were replaced by cars. armored in 1907.

After the diesel engine was invented, this engine was applied to locomotives and electric trains and the first diesel engine named Burlington Zephyr began to carry passengers regularly in 1934. In addition It also has a number of well-known brands, running on different routes, such as the City of Salina train of Union Pacific Company, Super Chief of Santa Fe and Comet of New York City, New Haven and Hartford.

While new technologies are being used on trains, roads are extended and extended to many remote areas, the train itself is also competitive by cars, buses, trucks and airplanes. In the 1940s and 1950s, the replacement of the train's worn-out parts cost billions of dollars and made some companies bankrupt. By the 1960s, the railroad companies still suffered losses, and needed government assistance.

In 1970, the US government set up the Amtrak train system to run on roads connecting many cities and the Railroad Reorganization Act in 1973 helped fire companies. Far from maintaining the service by rail.

Train system in several other countries.

The railway, when built, opened new perspectives on settlement and trade. By the end of the 19th century, the lands of Argentina and Brazil had grown very quickly after the completion of the railroads. Across the Andes mountains of South America, there is also a central railway and train line of Peru that began in 1870.

Also in the late 19th century, Britain, France and Germany installed railroads on colonial lands in Africa and Asia, such as England that helped India 25,000 stakes , equivalent to 40,200 kilometers. Russia began to place the Trans-Siberian (the Trans-Siberian) railway of 5,600 miles (9,910 kilometers) in 1891 and completed it in 1916. Australia started on the 1,108-kilometer railway ( 1,783 kilometers) in 1912 and completed in 1917, connecting the port of Pirie with the city of Kalgoordie. In China in 1949 there were 29,000 kilometers of railroads and the system increased to 54,000 kilometers in 1980 and every year, 1,000 kilometers of new roads were added.

Japan also developed very fast on the train system at the end of the 19th century. From 1964, Japan made a high-speed train connecting Tokyo and Osaka and then, the Shinkansen train system was is a symbol of Japan's advanced engineering and transportation.

The train system started from England, developed throughout Europe. In 1870, most European countries had major rail routes and engineers chiseled tunnels through the Alps to connect France with Italy and Switzerland by train routes. . In the late 19th century, Europe's most famous passenger train, the Orient Express, began operating in 1883 between the French city of Paris and the city of Istanbul. Turkey.

France in the middle of the 19th century had 6 large railway companies established: the North, the East, the West, the Central, P.L.M (Paris-Lyon-Méditerrannée) and P.O (Paris-Orléans). Later, the French government nationalized railway companies in 1938 to establish the National Railway Company S.N.C.F. (La société nationale des chemins de fer). At the beginning of 1976, France started implementing TGV high-speed train system (train à grande vitesse) on Paris-Lyon route, 425 kilometers long, thus, the car's sitting time decreased from 3 hours 50 minutes to less than 2 hours. By 1987, the TGV high-speed train was extended to the cities of Lille, Rouen, Marseille, Grenoble, Lausanne, Geneva and Berne of Switzerland, and later the system was developed to the North and the region. South and Atlantic Ocean of France.

The train system is a very fast means of transport, does not pollute the living environment, is very safe, not only for passengers but also for dangerous materials such as explosives, gases compression or radioactive materials.
Mr. Nerd

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High Tech Brain: Train system and development history
Train system and development history
High Tech Brain
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